Systematics: the study of biodiversity and evolutionary history on Earth.
1. Taxonomy: naming & classification system
binomials: species names
type specimen: a reference organism
taxa (taxon): a taxonomic group of any rank: species, genus, family, class
⇒ Carl Linnaeus developed the binomial and hierarchical system of classification (AKA the Linnaen Classification System)
EXAMPLE: Zea mays (Corn)
Species: Zea mays
Here’s a way to remember the hierarchy ⇒ King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda
A species name, or binomial, includes BOTH the genus (Zea) & specific epithet (mays). Binomials are always italicized and the specific epithet is never capitalized.
2. Phylogeny: system of ancestor/descendent relationships between taxa.
phylogeny is relative to the taxa or group in question.
Monophyletic (Clade): a group with a common ancestor and ALL descendents
Paraphyletic (Grade): a group with a common ancestor and SOME descendents
Polyphyletic: a group without a common ancestor
Apomorphy: refers to a special or derived trait/character
Synapomorphy: a shared derived trait/character
Plesiomorphy: refers to a primitive or ancestral trait/character
Symplesiomorphy: a shared primitive trait/character
Homoplasy: a trait/character evolved independently in 2 places
| WHY? |
1. Each species has a unique name for simplicity and ease of communication
2. Bringing order to a YUGE amount of biodiversity
3. To show evolutionary relationships (whos related to who)